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This really pins the dynamicists in a corner — only in rare cases, 1% or 2% of the time, do their simulations yield a Moon with an Earthlike composition.
Appearance: may be black Discoverer: unknown Obtained From: burning with insufficient oxygen Melting Point: 3773.15 K Boiling Point: 5100.15 K Density[kg/m3]: 2267 Molar Volume: 5.29 × 10-6 m3/mol Protons/Electrons: 6 Neutrons: 6 Shell Structure: 2,4 Electron Configuration: [He]2s22p2 Oxidation State: 4,2 Crystal Structure: hexagonal Carbon has been known since ancient times when it was produced by burning organic material in the presence of insufficient oxygen.
But the Apollo (and Luna) lunar samples, not to mention lunar meteorites, show that the Moon and Earth have very similar compositions.
Apart from their lack of iron and extreme lack of water, Moon rocks match Earth's isotopic ratios for the geochemically diagnostic elements titanium, calcium, silicon, and (especially) oxygen and tungsten.
The rocks contain surprising geochemical anomalies—the “fingerprints” of conditions that existed shortly after the planet formed.
Many planetary scientists believe that an impact such as this threw off the debris which eventually formed the Moon.
In the past, it would have surfaced here at the fjords, back in the days when here was there — before the puzzle-piece of Earth’s crust upon which Iceland lies scraped to the northwest.
Other modern findings about olivine from the region suggest that it might derive from an ancient reservoir of minerals at the base of the Iceland plume that, over billions of years, never mixed with the rest of Earth’s interior.
One argues for a one big splat early in solar-system history; a second envisions a score of lesser blows that built up the Moon over time; and a third suggests water was involved.
Given the trove of lunar samples in hand and the power of modern laboratory analyses, you'd think that by now geochemists should have completely nailed exactly how the Moon formed.